Eye Conditions

King Street Optical is committed to providing up-to-date and relevant information regarding eye health and the prevention of conditions relating the Diabetes, Glaucoma, and Macular Degeneration Disease.

Diabetic Eye Disease is a collection of eye conditions that have the potential to affect people who suffer from Diabetes. The most common types of this disease are Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema. Early detection, timely treatment, and the appropriate follow-up care for Diabetic Eye Disease can protect against vision loss. We suggest being tested at least once every two years to stay prevalent against the diseases and allow for early detection and immediate treatment.

All forms of Diabetic Eye Disease have the potential to cause severe loss of vision or blindness. It is paramount that all diabetics get tested regularly. The most common types of the disease are listed below.

Diabetic Retinopathy affects blood vessels in the light-sensitive tissue of the eye called the retina. It is the most common cause of vision loss among people with Diabetes and the leading cause of vision impairment and blindness among working-age adults.

Common symptoms include:

  • Blurred, distorted or patchy vision that cannot be corrected with prescription glasses.
  • Problems with balance, reading, watching television, and recognising people
  • Being overly sensitive to glare
  • Difficulty seeing at night


The most effective treatment for this condition is managing your Diabetes to prevent the condition from deteriorating. Other options include laser treatment and surgery.


Diabetic Macular Edema is a direct consequence of diabetic retinopathy, and results in the swelling in an area of the retina called the macula.

Common symptoms include:

  • Bleeding from abnormal blood vessels
  • Blurred vision
  • Loss of vision


It is important to note that symptoms generally do not occur in the early stages, so the best treatment is early detection. This is done through a comprehensive dilated eye exam that should be conducted at least once a year. Other forms of treatment include anti-VEGF injection therapy, focal/grid macular laser surgery, and corticosteroids.

Cataracts are the clouding of an individual’s eye lens. Cataracts are 2-5 times more likely to affect people who suffer from diabetes.

Causes of cataracts:

  • Ageing
  • Long term exposure to UV sunlight
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes

Common symptoms include:

  • Blurred vision
  • Sensitivity to light (glare)
  • Reduced night vision
  • Fading or ‘yellowing’ of colours


A cataract may only be removed by surgery. King Street Optical’s experienced optometrists will advise you on the severity of the cataract, and provide you with advice for moving forward with the treatment.

Glaucoma is a disease that damages the eye’s optic nerve that is directly connected to the brain. People who suffer from diabetes are nearly twice as likely to contract Glaucoma. According to Glaucoma.org, currently, 50% of people with Glaucoma are yet to realise as the disease can go undetected.

Symptoms of Glaucoma:

  • Early stages of open-angle glaucoma have no visible symptoms; therefore, early detection is difficult.
  • Later-stage symptoms include blurred vision, severe eye and head pain, nausea or vomiting due to the severe pain and sudden sight loss.


Currently, there is no cure for Glaucoma. The most effective form of treatment is early prevention through regular eye examinations. Other forms of treatment include eye drops and laser surgery.

Age-related macular degeneration affects the macular region of the retina responsible for straight forward sight. This disease can impair a patient’s reading, writing, detailed object perception, and colour vision.

Symptoms include:

  • A gradual decline in the ability to see objects clearly
  • Distorted vision
  • Dark or empty spaces blocking the central field of vision
  • Dimming of colour vision


Early detection of macular degeneration disease is critical for preventing the patient’s sight from deteriorating to the point of loss of vision. Other forms of treatment include anti-VEGF injections, photodynamic therapy, and changes to diet and lifestyle may slow the progression of the disease.